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An injury that occurs when the ankle rolls, twists, or turns in an awkward way.
Very common
More than 3 million US cases per year

Usually self-treatable
Usually self-diagnosable
Lab tests or imaging often required
Short-term: resolves within days to weeks

This can stretch or tear the tough bands of tissue (ligaments) that help hold the ankle bones together.
A sprained ankle causes swelling, pain, and limited range of motion.
Many people simply treat a sprained ankle at home with rest, ice, and pain relievers. Severe sprains may need medical evaluation.

A fungal infection that usually begins between the toes.
Very common
More than 3 million US cases per year

Spreads easily
Usually self-treatable
Usually self-diagnosable
Lab tests or imaging rarely required

Short-term: resolves within days to weeks
Athlete’s foot commonly occurs in people whose feet have become very sweaty while confined within tight-fitting shoes.
Symptoms include a scaly rash that usually causes itching, stinging, and burning. People with athlete’s foot can have moist, raw skin between their toes.
Treatment involves topical antifungal medications.

The seven most common sports injuries are:

Ankle sprain.
Groin pull.
Hamstring strain.
Shin splints.
Knee injury: ACL tear.
Knee injury: Patellofemoral syndrome — injury resulting from the repetitive movement of your kneecap against your thigh bone.
Tennis elbow (epicondylitis)

Flat Feet

Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is one of several terms to describe a painful, progressive flatfoot deformity in adults. Other terms include posterior tibial tendon insufficiency and adult acquired flatfoot.

High Arches

The sole of the foot is distinctly hollow when bearing weight, due to an abnormally high medial longitudinal arch.

Inflammation of one or more joints, causing pain and stiffness that can worsen with age.

Very common
More than 3 million US cases per year

Treatment can help, but this condition can’t be cured
Requires a medical diagnosis
Lab tests or imaging often required

Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong
Different types of arthritis exist, each with different causes including wear and tear, infections, and underlying diseases.
Symptoms include pain, swelling, reduced range of motion, and stiffness.
Medications, physical therapy, or sometimes surgery helps reduce symptoms and improve quality of life.

A bony bump that forms on the joint at the base of the big toe.
Very common
More than 3 million US cases per year

Treatable by a medical professional
Usually self-diagnosable
Lab tests or imaging not required

Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong
A bunion is formed when the big toe pushes against the next toe. Tight shoes, foot stress, and arthritis are causes.
The main symptoms are bone deformity, pain, and stiffness.
Treatments include changing shoes, padding the foot, and pain medications. Painful bunions can be removed surgically.

Calluses and corns
are caused by repeated pressure or friction on an area of skin. The pressure causes the skin to die and form a hard, protective surface. A soft corn is formed in the same way, except that when sweat is trapped where the corn develops, the hard core softens. This typically occurs between toes
A diabetic foot ulcer
is an open sore or wound that occurs in approximately 15 percent of patients with diabetes and is commonly located on the bottom of the foot. Of those who develop a foot ulcer, 6 percent will be hospitalized due to infection or other ulcer-related complication.
A condition in which the entire sole of the foot touches the floor when standing.

Very common
More than 3 million US cases per year

Treatment can help, but this condition can’t be cured
Usually self-diagnosable
Lab tests or imaging rarely required

Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong
Flat feet can occur during childhood if the arches of the feet don’t develop, after an injury, or from the wear and tear of aging.
Most people have no symptoms associated with flat feet. But some people with flat feet experience foot pain, particularly in the heel or arch area.
For painful flat feet, treatments include arch supports for the shoes, stretching, or a structurally supportive shoe.

A nail fungus causing thickened, brittle, crumbly, or ragged nails.
Very common
More than 3 million US cases per year

Treatable by a medical professional
Usually self-diagnosable
Lab tests or imaging rarely required

Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong
Usually, the problems caused by this condition are cosmetic.
The main symptoms are changes in the appearance of nails. Rarely, the condition causes pain or a slightly foul odor.
Treatments include oral antifungal drugs, medicated nail polish or cream, or nail removal.

These injuries can happen with a simple twist and fall. This is a low-energy injury. It is commonly seen in football and soccer players. It is often seen when someone stumbles over the top of a foot flexed downwards.

More severe injuries occur from direct trauma, such as a fall from a height. These high-energy injuries can result in multiple fractures and dislocations of the joints.

A form of arthritis characterized by severe pain, redness, and tenderness in joints.
Very common
More than 3 million US cases per year

Treatable by a medical professional
Requires a medical diagnosis

Lab tests or imaging often required
Pain and inflammation occur when too much uric acid crystallizes and deposits in the joints.
Symptoms of gout include severe pain, redness, and swelling in joints, often the big toe. Attacks can come suddenly, often at night.
During an acute attack, anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) can help to relieve pain and shorten the length of the attack. Patients with chronic gout can use behavioral modification such as diet, exercise, and decreased intake of alcohol to help minimize the frequency of attacks. Additionally, patients with chronic gout are often put on medications such as colchicine

A foot condition in which the toe has an abnormal bend in the middle joint.
Common
More than 200,000 US cases per year

Treatable by a medical professional
Usually self-diagnosable
Lab tests or imaging not required

Medium-term: resolves within months
A hammer toe is usually caused by wearing shoes with high heels or narrow toe boxes. It often affects the toe next to the big toe.
The affected toe may be painful or hard to move, and may develop corns or calluses.
Treatment can include wearing roomier shoes and using shoe inserts or pads. Surgery might be needed.

Although heel spurs are often painless, they can cause heel pain. They are frequently associated with plantar fasciitis, a painful inflammation of the fibrous band of connective tissue (plantar fascia) that runs along the bottom of the foot and connects the heel bone to the ball of the foot.
A condition in which the corner or side of a toenail grows into the flesh.
Very common
More than 3 million US cases per year

Treatable by a medical professional
Usually self-diagnosable
Lab tests or imaging not required

Medium-term: resolves within months
The condition usually affects the big toe. People who have diabetes are at greater risk of complications.
Pain, redness, and swelling can occur at the affected nail.
Lifting or removing the toenail can help. Antibiotics might be needed.

A thickening of the tissue around a nerve leading to the toes.
Common
More than 200,000 US cases per year

Treatable by a medical professional
Requires a medical diagnosis
Lab tests or imaging often required

Short-term: resolves within days to weeks
Morton’s neuroma may be caused by pressure or injury, such as from running or use of high heels.
Morton’s neuroma may feel like a pebble in a shoe or a fold in a sock. There may be sharp, burning pain or numbness in the ball of the foot or toes.
Treatment might include arch supports and foot pads, corticosteroid injections, strength exercises, wide-toe shoes, or surgery.

8 Common Foot Problems. Fungal and Bacterial Conditions, including athlete’s foot, occur because our feet spend a lot of time in shoes – a warm, dark, humid place that is perfect for fungus to grow. Fungal and bacterial conditions can cause dry skin, redness, blisters, itching, and peeling.

Athletic foot injuries can be difficult to properly diagnose and treat. Bearing the weight of the entire body, the foot is under tremendous stress. In many sports, the foot absorbs tremendous shearing and loading forces, sometimes reaching over 20 times the person’s body weight. Physicians who treat these disorders must have a good understanding of the anatomy and kinesiology of the foot.

Tendons are the strong, cord-like bands of connective tissue that link muscles to bone. If a tendon is made to work too hard, for too long or in the wrong way, damage and tiny tears develop in the tendon. This is accompanied by inflammation which is the tell-tale sign of the condition.

Toe, Foot, and Ankle Injuries. At one time or another, everyone has had a minor toe, foot, or ankle injury that caused pain or swelling. … Toe, foot, or ankle injuries most commonly occur during: Sports or recreational activities.
Chronic leg and foot ulcers occur in many adults with vascular disease or diabetes and are attributed to chronic venous insufficiency, arterial disease, prolonged pressure, or neuropathy. … Chronic wounds can be classified as vascular ulcers (e.g., venous and arterial ulcers), diabetic ulcers, and pressure ulcers (PUs).

Walking abnormalities are unusual and uncontrollable walking patterns. They are usually due to diseases or injuries to the legs, feet, brain, spinal cord, or inner ear.

Hard, grainy growths that appear on the heels or balls of the feet.
Very common
More than 3 million US cases per year

Spreads easily
Usually self-treatable
Usually self-diagnosable
Lab tests or imaging rarely required

Medium-term: resolves within months
Plantar warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).
The warts are hard, grainy, or fleshy growths that can be painful.
Treatments include over-the-counter remedies, salicylic acid, freezing medicine, or surgery.